Blood Cleanup Stories

Blood Cleanup by Benny

 

Blood cleanup came almost naturally to Benny. Then he grew up on an old-fashioned family farm dedicated half of its income and efforts to pig farming. He spent a good part of his youth, learning how to slaughter pigs cleaning up their blood. "Big Ben" was Benny's father and is a very conservative man; he insisted that Benny learn "farming the old way." Big Ben insisted that Benny used hands and upper body strength when it came to slaughtering pigs and doing farm work in general. So was no big deal for Benny to move quickly, silently, and without raising an eyebrow when it came to cleaning up after homicides, suicides, and unattended deaths.

After a year on the job, Benny would admit that the unattended death cleanup work was beyond the scope of his previous experience. He specialed in filthy house cleaning. But he soldiered on and learned what he needed to learn from his experiences cleaning up after the dead and the decomposed remains.

But homicides and suicides were no big deal for Benny. He single-handedly cleaned up so many homicides and suicides in record time it is coworkers would sometimes call him "Benny be gone." He was "gone" from a job in less time than they would spend gathering there for blood cleanup work. So Benny had found his niche in the professional blood cleanup trade. It would not be long before he did bring high profits to his boss. And for Benny, "the money was good." Benny was a "grunt" blood cleanup technician, you might say. He was a grunt because he did the linework, and he never complained. He had no contact with those high office administrative types. His telephone rang in a dispatch called, he got the dress, and he made his way to the death cleanup. There he did blood clean up in record time, returned his bags, barrels, and incidentals blood cleanup headquarters. And he made his way home to rest and study.

Benny enjoyed reading about history. He enjoyed reading about the history of World War II and found that the Nazi Germans had his attention. He also liked reading about the Japanese in World War II. He had this idea about ideology and how it drives people in the direction of doing foolish acts. He knew that one day Americans would look back on their history and wonder how so many people could have been bamboozled by the fossil fuel industry in writing oligarchs. How is it that the allowed commercial media to spread wicked ideology and cause so much pain-and-suffering upon the earth as the year's fever increase.

So yes, if you might imagine, Benny had an interest in science as well as history. He had a genuineness interesting climate science and use the works of Spencer Weart, our understanding history climate science.

Niederlungwitz, eastern Germany, Dr. Hans Serelman donated blood to a patient he had just met. He could not think of known, and he would not want to of Nolan that the patient was a racist Nazi stormtrooper. Within ten years, both the doctor and Siegfried would be dead. Siegfried would die in an artillery attack launched by the United States Army against the German homeland. Dr. Hans Serelman would die in a Nazi death camp. A Jew, Hans, and stepped out to befriend another human being without giving it a second thought.

While in the death, survivors would later note that Hans went out of his way to help the weak and infirm survive another day. He paid dearly for his efforts and finally died of starvation and illness. Those around the good doctor sometimes died from Nazi torture, bullets, and starvation.

Blood cleanup occurred on a great scale if there can be anything "great" about cleaning up large puddles of human blood in a death camp. But that's with Dr. Hans would do along with some of his fellow Members. They run a cleanup crew detailed to work in a German medical lab. In the lab, Nazi doctors would open up death camp inmates. These inmates were used to satisfy the bizarre desires of these Nazi doctors to inflict pain-and-suffering other human beings. If they had any humanity left, they were in denial.

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Meanwhile, good Germans outside the camp when about their lives, and for a while, their lives improved. Fruits and vegetables from far-off lands came to their dining room tables courtesy of the German army.

While other country medical practitioners were exploring the nature of human blood, the Germans with their highest levels of medical research for backward into myth and superstition. Because of the Nazi's denial of humanity's greater similarities and differences, blood became part of their national propaganda machine. The gay blood in allegorical meaning, a symbol of racial purity. They took this idea literally intern blood fell behind as a resource to help save lives. In this way, ideology hampered German medicine and cost the German nation thousands of lives. In fact, it would not be until after the second world war a German medicine finally began using the help of patients survive from traumatic wounds. Blood loss would finally not mean death.

Meanwhile, on the other side of the planet, the United States Marine Corps would use whole blood for the first time during combat. On the island of Iwo Jima, medics used Marines rifles to hold above their heads so the blood could flow into their veins. In this way, many hundreds, if not thousands of Marines survived the ghastly bullet shrapnel wounds. Unfortunately for the Japanese, they did not use blood transfusion.

So for the Nazis, the ideal of "blood cleanup" was an ideological issue. For them, such a thing is racial blood-purity and was comprised of a toxic Mr. of anti-Semitism. They believe a sort of social Darwinism, the sort of Darwinism he Charles Darwin himself could not believe. Darwin incidentally knew a lot about blood cleanup because he did study anatomy as so many thousands of animals in his lifetime. He knew that blood carried vital nutrients, not some sort of racial purity.

For the Nazis, they believe that blood signified the race keynoter. Of course, there's no such thing as "races" and humanity. There is only one race, and that's human beings. We all share the same type of blood. Plus, there's no such thing as a "rare" gene. Just the same, German anthropologist be years doing research on how to distinguish between a Jew and Aryan. The practice that we call "chronology" in this means to measure the head and parts of the head. For example, measuring the four head, lips, and eyelids would give some indication of "typical Jewish features."

Ironically, and a bit off the thread here, pre-knowledge he was a big thing with Charles Darwin's cousin, Sir Francis Galton She Francis Galton thought that he could find something called "races" among humanity by measuring heads. This idea would later become part of an ideological fixture in theories of juvenile delinquency in Chicago, Illinois. There, a social scientist would measure a thousand young boys in juvenile hall. He would look for a common denominator between the delinquent behavior in their body size and shape. He would use the terms act more common in the more common mesomorph to distinguish size types. We now use these terms to describe people in our environment as police officers do briefly. But these are not scientific terms, and they do not designate a race. They do not designate a race any more than one's head shape and features than blood types.

Germany's scholars would mix propaganda with their racial theories of blood superiority. For example, in 1926, a national competition for "best Nordic head" was held. A cash prize was given.

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We don't know who won, but we can be certain of one thing when it came to blood cleanup, the Nazi doctors did not find their master race. Otto Reche had a race theory. He was the founder of the German Society for the study of blood groups. He believed that his serological research project would find proof of Aryan superiority and territorial claims. You can see how territorial claims would be part of this master race idea. By claiming the be the master race, and by claiming the blood would prove they're the master race, they would be entitled somehow to someone else's land. It all goes to the land question in the end.

Reche went on to work at the University of Leipzig in Germany. Here he would direct the Institute for race and folk anthropology. He would add it to journals, folk and race, and the Journal race anthropology. Biological grounds for believing that blood types would show racial characteristics became a common theme — the base to work on a distorted version of the work of Ludwig Hirszfeld. A Polish's serologist, Landsteiner was second only to race theory leaders among Europeans. He spent many years working in Germany, where he showed that blood cleanup and humanity would lead to greater racial purity.

So when it came to genocide in killing off the Jewish population. The Nazi Germans were actually doing what they call the type of blood cleanup. Only literally the net blood cleanup to mean blood cleanup genetically speaking. So this idea blood cleanup and biology go way back. Today we see the issue of blood cleanup still exists in some southern states of the United States. Here racial theories abound in the continue to mystify the full population. In Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Texas, and even in Arizona, people still hold to these ideas of racial purity.

During World War I, he happened to be the beneficiary of the "cage." The cage was an area in which thousands of Allied troops were kept in Salonika. Among the troops were soldiers from Africa, China, India, and European countries. He would look to this human diversity and collect blood samples. His idea was to find the more pure blood as proof that a hierarchical stratum of blood types would help blood cleanup in the future.

In this way, he believed that he was working on a new tool to study human evolution. Besides skull shape, skin color, and eye color, is chronology theory led to some strange outcomes as well as human suffering. Certain traits like skin toner hair texture were considered less than permanent markers for race. But blood type is very important.

Since a person's blood type remain constant throughout their life, but blood was certainly a great resource for scientific study. Because he needed to do was enough blood cleanup, and before long, he would have his racial hierarchy. He collected blood from 19 different ethnic groups in all. He would call rate there blood types by assigning a value to the geographical area from which they arose. He would look for patterns. For example, among English blood types, he finds a relatively high percentage of type blood. At 43.2%, the English blood would rank higher because it's type is found to be only 7.2%. Thus, Germans could count on the English but to help blood cleanup for the world blood supply racial purity.

For the French and Serbian soldiers, he found something in between these figures. He would plot the blood types on a map, and on this map, he would find larger patterns. From the west to the east, he found the proportion of being group increase. So the be group would grow higher in France and increasingly even higher toward Italy. Among the Turks, the be group would be highest among the former geographical areas. He would find to his surprise that there shall we say surprisingly found what he wanted to find, that the blood group increased as north-central European soldiers were tested.

So blood types were telling Hirszfelds that the human species came from two different locations. The biochemical race is existed and rose in India. Her blood type has appeared in the greatest frequency. Where is another race, the race, originated somewhere in north-central Europe. So he figured that disease races spread across the globe, intermingling their gene pools produce different blood types. The distribution of blood types would serve as an evolutionary road map. Humanity's origins could be told by blood group typing. Today we use genetic markers for similar purposes; it turns out.

But Herzfeld's fundamentalist takes would turn out for the observant observer of blood cleanup work. He omitted oh blood type is from his analysis. And this is no small blood cleanup issue. We know that the old blood type occurs much more frequently than blood type A or blood type B. How he went about justifying the mission of the old blood type to help clean up humanity's blood remains a mystery.

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Apparently, they did believe that the old type blood did not evolve in relation to a type of gene. They did believe that the blood in the blood is involved in the relationship to genes. They did avoid some races fallacies of the time, though. For example, he did not believe that stereotype characteristics related to one's bearing or the nature of one's walk was related to the blood type. He did not believe these ideas are characteristics would anyway designate one is member of one race or another. These blood types did convey geographical information, although they were free of other values.

We might think the manner would come to rest here because Herzfeld and claim that is blood types would not lead to characterizing stereotypical fallacies. But this is exactly with the Nazi Germans used for their racial superiority blood group typing. Otto Reche and his friends would create the German Society for the study of blood groups. It became the embodiment of the fallacy that Herzfeld had hoped to avoid.

They found that these 40 Austrian German doctors and anthropologists to "study" the idea of racial superiority among blood groups. They look for racial characteristics and some relation to blood. Blood cleanup never had a worse name. He sent thousands of questionnaires to doctors around Germany. They look for correlations of findings, and in the 1932 publication, handbook for blood groups they made some are out claims.

I got off a comic book; they held that because blood type B frequently occurs among Eastern Europeans and Jews, they had found a "Slavic" or "Jewish" marker. So for them, the be group was for a type of dark, Asiatic racial group known as the Minderwertig in Germany. This was the undesirable people in future victims of Hitler's Holocaust.

Just as we might expect, it turns out that those people associated with German names who were urban dwellers turned out to have type blood. More common among the Germans, they became linked with positive traits such as intelligence, work ethic, and stability. Oddly, for the be group, one researcher found that be blood group people spent more time on the toilet. Whereas, a blood type of people took only a moment to poop, and be types could be expected to take as long as 40 minutes to poop. The only people interested in this type of feces elimination behavior would be feces cleanup practitioners. It turns out.

One French researcher with an unusual liking for the Nazis would say that B blood type people were less dependable as soldiers are more prone to enter retail trades.

As absurd of this so-called "research" may seem, we find similar magical thinking in today's climate denial population. The climate denial has more to do with blood cleanup in the long term; it intergenerational him speaking. For blood cleanup will become a common activity is war spread with global warming. Be that as it may, we know that the relative frequency of type A blood in type B blood differs little among any given geographical area. Even in Berlin, the very heart of Nazi Germany, the Aryans exhibited more be blood than the Jews. As the Nazi murder machine drove forward invoking its blood cleanup machinery on the world's population, Herzfeld's corrupted thesis of blood cleanup by identifying blood type was invoked as true science.

The racist Germans had gotten hold of theory to justify their own type of blood cleanup worldwide.

Mongrel races had evolved from intermixing the blood of the people would evolve from the mountains of Germany with other people who had evolved somewhere in China. The two great warring blood races intersected and produce mongrel races throughout Europe, and a worldwide blood cleanup must be undertaken to purify the human races. Only in this way could the safety of the German blood group become safe from the mongrel blood types.

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Wouldn't you know, that the German Society for the study of blood groups would create a colored wall map that showed color-coded islands of orange-red German blood groups mixed with yellow Slavic blood groups? Their idea was unmistakable: the Aryans would have to do blood cleanup by resettling the eastern lands, and in this, the way the wood liberate the islands appear blooded Germans from the mongrel blooded Asiatics.

This form of seizing landed peoples was new to humanity. Before in the past, as one area became overpopulated, or as a ruling class leader sought more power by grabbing land from others, outright appeals to the Godhead reused. But now we have so-called German scientists using fake science and fake anthropology. They were dehumanizing their enemies with their bizarre anthropology findings. They took measurements to remove all signs of mongrel blood types from eastern lands. In this way, the new word invades first.

I 1935, the infamous Nuremberg blood protection laws were passed. People were denied citizenship unless they could prove themselves of "German or related blood." Anyone who talked with the Jews was suspect because they may have a sexual union, and thereby possibly one prone to degrade the German race.

The Jews violated the laws were charged with committing "an attack on German blood." Germans evaluated the blood cleanup law could be tried for "treason's against their own blood."

This race campaign helps the Nazis to focus on removing the "Jewish influence." In doing so, medicine would suffer mightily. Just the idea of using magical thinking in medicine would set back German-led research, real blood cleanup research, by generation. As a result, wound to German soldiers during World War II would not receive whole blood transfusion for the sake of protecting them from race-mixing. Now Germany had lost the benefit of Jewish medical researchers in this was a true loss. For, among the Jewish population, real blood cleanup research occurred. Jews were prone to seek medical careers. Remember, Sigmund Freud?

 Apparently, the perpetrator of the mass murder had taken a knife to four shotgun victims carved them up. As horrific scenes go, this one was one for the books. There is so much blood draining down the wall cavities into an apartment below the crime scene at the family had to be removed to the motel.

Benny enjoyed opportunities like this, an opportunity to set and re-dispenser worked climate science books. It reminded him of how humanity let precious time pass this carbon dioxide built up in the atmosphere and cause the earth to warm. It reminded him how the earth's glaciers are melting, and seas were rising, which would cause generations to migrate because their homes had been awash with seawater. And would remind him how the ocean was becoming more acidic with the inclusion of increased toxicity from rising concentrations of carbon dioxide. So he sat, and he read, and he would scribble notes in his notebook. He would spend time writing about the history of climate science.

Benny Studies of Blood History

Sometimes he would think back to his studies about the Germans Nazi ideology and blood cleanup theories. He would write what he learned on Wikipedia as well as from his textbooks on world history. He would use this time waiting for crime scene cleanup duties studying the greatest crimes perpetrated against humanity. Ideology would be at the back of his mind as he thought about the ideology of climate denial perpetrated on humanity by the Koch brothers, the fossil fuel industry in general, Fox News, and ignorant people too lazy and too narrow-minded to do their own research. He knew that these people would have been "good Germans" in 1932, Germany. And it bothered him.

Many learn that by 1942, Dr. Rudolph Ramm, a German medical doctor, proudly proclaimed that the Germans had gone about their "blood" cleansing beyond belief. The Nazi doctors said that "no man of German blood is treated by a Jewish doctor." Meaning that the German doctors had helped to liquidate the Jewish doctors. German medicine would suffer as a result. Germany would run short of doctors, it's medical schools were short on medical teachers, and the German fanatics even trained Aryan paramedics as teachers of medicine. Quackery and folk remedies became acceptable during this period of time. Then he felt a bit of sympathy for the wounded German soldiers returning from the front. They would find it hard to be treated by a real doctor in medical equipment was old, and so too were the medical techniques. The long time before blood cleanup included will blood drip into the German's veins.

The German see and recognize their tactical air in order for the Jewish doctors to be re-mobilized. But they have been too effective at liquidating the Jewish doctors. It's as if the Nazi dictatorship had opened the wound would not recover from.

Many learn that the world was dividing quickly between the fascist and non-fascist, between the Aryans and other races, not so unlike today as the United States seems to be divided between climate deniers and those who continue to believe in science. Many would learn that in 1936, Hitler had become friends with Francisco Franco, a Spanish general. The fascist to lead a rebellion against the weak leftist government in Madrid. Frankel, we gain Mussolini support. He would lead tens of thousands of troops to destroy the leftist government. Luke, while fell airplanes, were used against the Spanish government and cause much blood to flow among the loyal Spanish government fighters. They fought Spanish fascism and loss. Before the loss, though, the Soviets had sent men to fight the fascist machine — the font on the Republican side of the war.

The ideological dimensions were clear. Over 60 countries were represented in the fight against Spanish fascism. The Abraham Lincoln Brigade was formed in the United States and fought proudly against the fascist Spanish. Benny was pleased to learn this bit of history.

Benny was pleased to learn about a Canadian surgeon, a communist, who was a man of action. The name was Norman Bethune, and he too worked with blood. He was among the medical volunteers. He intended to take direct and dramatic action against the Spanish by fixing up the loyal Republican soldiers. He would visit wound words in Madrid and help patch up soldiers. He became sorrowful when he saw young soldiers dying from lack of blood. He thought, why bring back wounded men who are bleeding to death when the blood could travel forward to the wounded man? This was a novel idea at the time.

Bethune thought the collecting blood from civilians and storing it in bottles would help remedy some of the blood needs of wounded soldiers. This becomes a type of blood cleanup among the civilian population. Doctors could help civilians donate blood and ensure that it reached the wounded soldiers in the fight against fascism. In World War I, Benny learned, doctors perform transfusions while in the field. There, volunteers were used to making a direct transfusion into wounded soldiers. Although effective at saving lives at times, this form of blood transfusion was quite dangerous for all concerned.

In the past, doctors considered story blood to novel into dangerous during wartime. Bethune would consider the complications related to storing blood. He knew the blood had a limited shelf life. Blood cells would rupture during transport, but he decided soldiers needed blood, and he would make sure that the needed blood reached him. He then would travel to London and by a van to outfit for blood cleanup and transfusion purposes.

Upon the white van, workers would place a rack to store boxes. A gas-powered autoclave for sterilization would be included inside the van. Any kerosene powered portable refrigerator was placed in the van — ease glassware of all types. Vacuum bottles, blood flats, drip bottles, anything he could find for storing blood became an important part of his effort to store blood for wounded soldiers. Betty enjoyed this type of information.

Bethune would equip over 1375 separate pieces of equipment for blood stories and blood cleanup. By the end, he'd have enough chemicals to make up solutions for intravenous injections. Physiological serums, glucose, and sodium sites rate could last for up to three months when given proper refrigeration he learned. Bethune named his operation the Spanish-Canadian blood transfusion Institute. For Spanish physicians joined him in a 15 room apartment in Madrid so that they could do their work for humanity. Ironically, the apartment had been abandoned by a Doxy diplomat just weeks before they moved in.

Many learn that the physician would broadcast appeals for donors while performing pleadings and store the blood on the apartment shelves. Once collected and placed on the shelves, the blood containing bottles were labeled and stored in the refrigerator. They collected one half to three-quarter gallons of blood daily. They would mix it with sodium nitrate (3.8%) and ensure that it was frozen in a refrigerator inside a variety of bottles. Milk bottles and wine bottles became especially handy for blood storage. Bethune learned that the blood would keep for at least a week.

Granted, he could not test for certain types of germs like syphilis of malaria. He's amateurish precautions; he causes blood donors to swear on their honor that they had no norm blood diseases. He would seek out donors from 56 hospitals in Madrid, and his men would sprint to their van with the newly acquired blood bottles. Occasionally a bottle would fall in the technicians would do blood cleanup on the scene. They knew that they must keep the public's approval and that on the scene, blood cleanup was important because of superstitions about human blood among the general population. You see, in those days, people in Madrid Spain were very superstitious and had all kinds of weird thoughts about human blood, not so unlike the Germans in some ways, although they did not follow the German ideology of racial superiority and blood purity.

No, among the general population of Madrid in those days, the idea miasma still permeated the minds of many of the population. The people believe that "bad air" was the result of miasma, floating microorganisms of some type in the air that led to illness and disease. Although this theory had something to it, it was not quite with the population belief. They had sort of developed and ideology over generations now, and this clouded their ability to learn about science and how blood odors did not lead to illness and disease. Benny would recall many blood cleanup scenes where he had to explained families how blood in death odors did not cause illness and disease. He would explain, however, and one can become nauseated by these odors for lack of exposure, experience with blood cleanup odors.

Benny noticed how the Spanish doctors would take a blood donor's blood type by pricking one of notaries fingers. The glass in the serum check took about two minutes. Its transfusion within takes place. He juxtaposes the idea of the Spanish doctors during the Spanish Civil War over against the German Nazi doctor's blood typing defined racial superiority markers. He could not help but understand the great dangers implicit in an ideology founded on mythology and ignorance. Here Bethune had shouted, "Viva la revolution," how the German doctors shouted, "long live the master race!".

As Benny sat in his van waiting for his coworkers to write for the crime scene cleanup job, he could not help but make the comparison between Dr. Bethune and Hemingway's character. Bethune had risked his life, driving the bloodmobile to wounded soldiers hundreds of miles from Madrid. He risked his life many times. He was seen soaking blood bottles and streams to keep them cool as combat between the Republican supporters and fascists Spanish destroyed the landscape.

Both fumes stayed with the Republican medical Corps until he was worn out. He would later move on to China, where he performed many surgeries on behalf of the communist fighting the Japanese. As fate would have it, one day, while working to quickly in emergency surgery, he slipped and cut his finger. Before long infection set and the doctor would soon die.

But the room would not have a hang-up about racial blood types, and we find this in his use of type O blood. Rather than shuffle between type A, type B, and type O, he simply uses type O as a universal blood substance. So he eliminated the need for a blood test. He pulled the blood donations and lots of six, diluting any antibodies or antigens that might be particular to one unit or another, producing a more standardized product. Finally, he pressurizes the bottles by pumping and filtered air. In this way, the blood became highly oxygenated and sort of immune from germs that would otherwise infect the blood.

Later on, a Madrid doctor by the name of Duran-Jorda created the most advanced blood storage methods for the time. He rejected as impractical blood collection during air raids. He designed a system to collect blood from the living while adapting techniques for mass production of blood storage. He agreed with the Russian approach to blood storage in which bottles with small amounts of glucose solution were used.

Then he would think about these characters in history and the conditions they lived in. He would think about how is Roy they were in the fight against evil. He likes to think that as a blood cleanup practitioner doing crime scene cleanup work, he was in some way fighting evil. But of course, he had no way to go about making blood cleanup heroic. It was something you just do like butchering a pig and cleaning up the blood afterward. Still, overall, and he felt that he was doing the right thing by studying history as well as climate science. He valued moments like this waiting for his peers to arrive at a crime scene for crime scene cleanup activities. Before long, the sun would be coming up, and he is anxious to get on with the cleaning, so I get back home and get some sleep before school.

Benny enjoyed reading about the ancient Greeks because he knew these people would have tended animals much as he did on the farm. Blood cleanup would have been a standard routine activity for them as it was for him. He knew too that they viewed the human body is fundamentally different than we do today. They didn't think of the digestive system nervous system and in the doctrine system. They didn't know about hormones either. Stuff like genes and infections were of no concern. They knew nothing about germs.

Blood cleanup food

For a professional blood cleanup practitioner, eating before blood cleanup work begins is a good idea. It's hard to know beforehand just how long the cleaner will be on the job. A younger person might get by for a while without eating, but when there's heavy lifting and moving involved as well as scrubbing and rinsing, eventually, blood sugar runs low as muscles become tired.

For the older blood cleanup practitioner, it almost goes without saying, it's a good idea to have a hefty meal before work begins. These days, with the diabetes play going on worldwide, the blood cleanup practitioner will want to have it in a hefty meal that includes two or three oranges. It's a good idea to include a cold bottle of orange juice and the cleaner's work bag. This is the bag that the blood cleanup practitioner will carry into the scene.

The blood cleanup bag is important for a few reasons. Once the cleaner is inside the death scene, it will not want to leave the room any more than they must. Such a good idea to have what's needed in the blood cleanup bag.

Jimmy Jones

Jimmy Jones worked as a blood cleanup practitioner in Riverside County, California. He had a bad habit of forgetting his bag, of beginning with. So we lost a lot of time moving from the death cleanup scene to his vehicle. Then I had to return to the death cleanup scene.

After a while, his employer decided to transfer Jimmy from the blood cleanup unit to the filthy house cleanup unit.

A sizable number of Americans donate blood were both scientific investigation use of native blood transfusions. Over 15 million pints of water donated by about 10 million people. Transfusion has become the gold standard in creating many types of illnesses and injuries. 

World War II created a great need for a whole blood transfusion because of artillery and bullet wounds, as well as accidental injuries leading to blood loss. So it would be hard to say how many lives have been saved by blood transfusion today. We do know that the Germans were slow to take a blood transfusion because of racist theories related to human blood. For them, it would not be until 1946 before a German hospital dared to use the blood of one human being to save another human being's life.

We know too that rings on Iwo Jima first is blood transfusion while in combat. Marine Corpsmen, maybe corpsman that is, was known to use refrigeration devices to keep whole blood stable as fighting continued on that hell-like island. The naval corpsman was known to lose their hands to sniper fire as they held all blood, including plasma, in the air gives gravity as a transfusion vehicle. Many times naval corpsmen would use 100 Marine infantry soldiers' weapons to hold the plasma bottle.

In Europe, U.S. Army soldiers are different, both plasma and whole blood, early on in the war. Their lines of transportation led to more rapid resupply combat and medical equipment. So in Europe, at least on the American side of the war, whole blood and plasma made their appearance from almost the beginning of the war.

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